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The tone and volume of the instrument vary with size and construction. There are 4 common Ukulele sizes: soprano, concert, tenor, and baritone.
Soprano is the smallest size ukulele. These tend to be more popular and widely used. The length is around 21 inches and the scale length is around 13 inches.
Soprano ukuleles produce that crisp sound that people normally associate with ukuleles.
The concert ukulele is one size bigger than a soprano ukulele. It has longer neck and the frets are spaced out.
This ukulele is a bit easier to play for most people since it is a little bit bigger that soprano ukulele. The length is around 23 inches and the scale length is around 15 inches.
Tenor ukuleles are a step up from concert models. The length is around 26 inches and the scale length is around 17 inches. Tenor ukuleles produce more low end tone which adds to the sound some thickness. These are getting more popular among professionals.
Are closer in size and sound to a classic guitar. The baritone ukulele length is around 30 inches and the scale length is around 19 inches. The tuning of the baritone ukulele is different from soprano ukulele tuning: the strings are tuned the same as top 4 strings of a guitar. Baritone ukulele is usually used by guitarists wishing to learn ukulele or ukulele players wanting to progress to playing a guitar.